If you thought there are only the temporal infixes, you’re sadly wrong. There are a lot to come :D.
But don’t be afraid, we’ll go through them in this lection :D.
Infixes for Position <0>
Reflexctive / <äp>
If someone want’s to say “I wash myself” they could say “Oel yur oet”, but like you know, Na’vi like short sentences and the Na’vi version isn’t short and doesn’t sound good, rather stupid I think. So they inventented the <äp> infix. This little infix “reflects” the action back on the person saying it. Cause of that fact the <äp> infix changes transitive verbs to intransitive ones.
|Oe yäpur||I wash myself|
|Po tspäpang||He kills himself|
|Nga häpawnu||You protect yourself|
Causative Infix / <eyk>
“They made me do this!”
Who didn’t use a sentence like this when they were young? But till now you didn’t knew how to this in Na’vi right? But with this little infix you now can! The <eyk> is used whenever someone is forced by another one to do something, either with word or with actions.
The way of using this infix seperates by the class of the verb, if it is transitive or intransitive.
In this case the verb is made transitive by the infix, where the initiator get’s the -l suffix and the forced one get’s the -t suffix.
|Fol oeti tsakem seyki||They made me do this!|
|Fìtìkawngìl oeti eykaho||This accident made me pray!|
In this case the initiator still has the -l suffix, while the direct object of the action get’s the -t suffix. The “forced one” now get’s the -r suffix. That sound more complicated then it is, trust me :).
|Oel tspang kxututi||I kill the enemy|
|Oel ngaru tspeykang kxututi||I make you kill the enemy.
(Means: I forced you to kill the enemy).
Some more examples:
|Eyktanìl syuveti ngaru ‘eykem||The Eyktan makes you cook the food.|
|Mo’atìl fweykew neytiriru tsu’teyti||Mo’at makes neytiri search Tsu’tey|
|Sänrrìl ‘uot oeru reykun||A glow makes me find something.|
Relective Initiation / <äpeyk>
These two can be combined into one infix, which also combines booth effects, but always is intransitive.
Infixes for Position <1>
Completed and incompleted action / <ol> & <er>
These two Infixes indicated wheter a action is completed or not. But these two don’t show the tense of the action. It only shows if completed or not. For example:
“I will have swum”
“I have swum”
Booth of these sentences would go with the <ol> infix. Same for the <er> Infix.
A few examples to that in Na’vi:
“Oe tolaron” – I have hunted
“Oe teraron” – I am hunting
“Nga slolele” – You have swum
“Nga slerele” – You are swimming.
If you use the <ol> Infix with a word where infix position <1> is in front of ll the letter ll disappears.
Example: m<1>ll’an with <ol> will be mol‘an.
There is an equal rule for <er> where the next letter is an “rr” then the infix disappears.
Example: vrrìn with the infix would still be vrrìn.
Subjunctive, imperative and necessary Infix for some grammer / <iv>
The <iv> infix possibly is one of the most used infixes at all. The reason for that are the many uses of that one.
The first and most used case is for modal verb constructions, but that will be described in the lesson for modal verbs. In short: if you use a modal verb you need the <iv> infix in the next verb. For example:
“Oe new tivaron” – I want to hunt.
More to that in the lesson for modal verb constructions. (Will be linked here when done).
The next application of the <iv> is for subjunctives.
The last application for this infix is the imperative form, but the infix is not necessary for the command to be an command and the <iv> doesn’t soften the order.
There are also conjunctions which need the <iv> in the next verb, like fte, but more to that in the lesson to conjunctions.
Adjectivisation / <us> & <awn>
Like the header spoilers, these two infixes make adjectives out of verbs. But why are there two for it?
The <us> creates an active voice adjective, while the <awn> creates a passiv voice adjective.
Booth work with the scheme a-v<1>erb / v<1>erb-a
Example for <us>:
|Nantang ahusahaw||The sleeping Nantang|
|Yusoma yerik||The eating yerik|
|Tute atusul||The running person|
Examples for <awn>
|Yerik atawnaron||The hunted yerik|
|Tsngan a‘awnem||The cooked meat|
|Tspawnanga tute||The killed person|
The <us> can also be used to create nouns out of verbs. The pattern is almost the same as for the adjectivisation, only with a tì instead of the a, and here the tì can only be infront of the verb. This function should only be used, when there is no subject for the verb yet.
Tìwusem – The fighting
Tìyusom – The Eating
Tìtusaron – The hunting
Determination infix / <ìsy> & <asy>
These infixes are used to show, that one is really determined to do something. The <ìsy> when they are determined to do it in a really near future and the <asy> when they are only determined to do it somewhen in the future.
|Oe nìsyume!||I will learn! (soon)|
|Oe pasylltxe nìNa’vi nì’aw!||I will only speak Na’vi!|
The combined infixes
When you want to combine the infixes for tenses and the subjunctive infix, or tenses with the infixes for completed and incompleted actions, you run into the probleme that these all go into position <1>, so you need to combine them. In the graphic at the left you can see the way that they get combined.
(That graphic is created by EanaUnil for her german Na’vi learning website: numeko.info)
Infixes for position <2>
The “Mood”-Infixes / <ei> and <äng>
Those two Infixes indicate the mood of the person talking, wether they like <ei> the action or don’t <äng>.
The translation don’t change through these infixes, it only indicates if the person speaking think that it is good or not.
But also here are some exceptions.
If you use these infixes in si verbs you need to use a different version of them.
Irayo s<2>i + <ei> = Irayo seiyi.
So si + ei = seiyi
The same rule is also applied to verbs where the next letter is a ì, rr or ll. Here the ei also becomes an eiy.
zeiyìm, neiyrr, veiyll.
If you use the <äng> in si, you can also say “sengi” but that’s not necessary.
The assumption infix / <ats>
This is an infix for assumptions like the title already says. It is used to tell another person an assumption based on the infos he / she has.
|Po ‘ue nìtxan taluna säfrìp kali’weya! Po terkatsup||Because of the bite of the kali’weya he throws up a lot. He is dying|
|Srung satsi ngar||This should help you|
This infix is also used for so called “Presumptive questions”, where neither the person asking or the aked person knows the answer.
|Pesu latsu po?||Who the hell is that?|
|Peu latsu tsaw?||What the heck is that?|
The ceremonial infix / <uy>
This Infix only is used in very ceremonical speech or at special occasions when someone want’s to speak very ceremonic.
|Na’viyä luyu hapxì ngenga||You are a part of the people|